A great deal of ink has been devoted to analysing the causes of the First World War, but there are good reasons for studying its consequences. The most obvious result of the war was the collapse of the empires: the Russian, the Hapsburg, the Ottoman and the German. The peace settlement at Versailles was supposedly based on the principles of nationalism and liberalism, yet it was notoriously difficult to apply national self-determination in central and eastern Europe and the Balkans and impossible to do so in the middle-east. The war had tremendous consequences for Britain and her empire, and its impact in Ireland led to the extinction of the old Irish House Rule party. The war did much for the emergence of the new Labour party as a contender for government and for the emancipation of women. Would communism have become dominant in Russia without the war? Did the war help to bring about Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany? Why did the USA fail to join the League of Nations?